Sample Standard Deviation Calculator
Unit Converter ▲
Unit Converter ▼
From:  To: 
Find More Calculator☟
The sample standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion or variability within a set of sample data. It plays a crucial role in statistics, research, and various scientific disciplines, providing insights into data variability and helping to understand the spread of data points around the mean.
Historical Background
The concept of standard deviation was introduced in the early 18th century as part of the theory of errors and probability. It has since become a fundamental tool in statistics for measuring data variability.
Calculation Formula
The formula for calculating the sample standard deviation (\(s\)) is given by:
\[ s = \sqrt{\frac{1}{N1} \sum_{i=1}^{N} (x_i  \bar{x})^2} \]
where:
 \(s\) is the sample standard deviation,
 \(x_i\) represents each value in the sample,
 \(\bar{x}\) is the sample mean,
 \(N\) is the sample size.
Example Calculation
Given a set of numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
The mean (\(\bar{x}\)) is \(3\), and the sample standard deviation (\(s\)) is calculated as:
\[ s = \sqrt{\frac{1}{51}((13)^2 + (23)^2 + (33)^2 + (43)^2 + (53)^2)} = \sqrt{2} \approx 1.41421 \]
Importance and Usage Scenarios
Sample standard deviation is vital for understanding the spread of a sample set of data, especially in fields like finance, meteorology, and quality control. It helps in determining the reliability of statistical conclusions.
Common FAQs

What is the difference between population and sample standard deviation?
 Population standard deviation includes all elements from the set of interest, while sample standard deviation only involves a subset, making it an estimate of the population standard deviation.

Why do we use \(N1\) instead of \(N\) in the formula?
 Using \(N1\) (Bessel's correction) provides an unbiased estimate of the population variance from a sample, compensating for the fact that the sample mean is an estimate of the population mean.

Can sample standard deviation be zero?
 Yes, if all sample values are the same, the deviation from the mean is zero, resulting in a sample standard deviation of zero, indicating no variability within the sample data.
This calculator provides an easy and accurate way to calculate the sample standard deviation of a dataset, offering valuable insights into its variability and spread.