GramSchmidt Orthonormalization Calculator
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Historical Background
The GramSchmidt process, introduced by Jørgen Pedersen Gram and Erhard Schmidt, is a fundamental algorithm in linear algebra used to convert a set of linearly independent vectors into an orthonormal set. This method has applications in numerical analysis, quantum mechanics, and signal processing.
Calculation Formula
The GramSchmidt process involves the following steps for each vector \(v_i\):

Subtract projections:
\[ u_i = vi  \sum{j=1}^{i1} \text{proj}_{u_j}(vi) \]
Where \(\text{proj}{u_j}(v_i)\) is the projection of \(v_i\) onto the previously calculated vector \(u_j\). 
Normalize the vector:
\[ e_i = \frac{u_i}{u_i} \]
Example Calculation
For two vectors \(v_1 = (1, 0)\) and \(v_2 = (1, 1)\), applying GramSchmidt:

First vector:
\( u_1 = v_1 = (1, 0) \)
Normalize:
\( e_1 = \frac{(1, 0)}{1, 0} = (1, 0) \) 
Second vector:
Subtract the projection of \(v_2\) onto \(e_1\):
\[ u_2 = v2  \text{proj}{e_1}(v_2) = (1, 1)  \left( \frac{1 \cdot (1, 0)}{1} \right) = (1, 1)  (1, 0) = (0, 1) \] Normalize:
\( e_2 = \frac{(0, 1)}{0, 1} = (0, 1) \)
The orthonormal vectors are \(e_1 = (1, 0)\) and \(e_2 = (0, 1)\).
Importance and Usage Scenarios
The GramSchmidt process is essential for converting any linearly independent set of vectors into an orthonormal basis, simplifying many problems in numerical computations, physics, and engineering. This process is widely used in QR factorization of matrices, signal processing (e.g., in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), and the construction of orthonormal polynomial sequences.
Common FAQs

What is the purpose of GramSchmidt orthonormalization?
The purpose is to take a set of linearly independent vectors and convert them into an orthonormal set, where all vectors are orthogonal to each other and have a unit norm. 
Why is orthonormalization important?
Orthonormal vectors simplify calculations in various fields, such as solving linear systems, and are crucial in applications like spectral analysis and computer graphics. 
Can the GramSchmidt process fail?
The process requires the initial set of vectors to be linearly independent. If they are not, the process will produce a zero vector, signaling failure. 
How does GramSchmidt relate to QR decomposition?
The GramSchmidt process is a foundational step in the QR decomposition of matrices, which decomposes a matrix into an orthogonal matrix \(Q\) and an upper triangular matrix \(R\).